Revista de Osteoporosis y Metabolismo Mineral

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Category: Original Articles

Risk factors for incident fracture in patients with breast cancer treated with aromatase inhibitors: B-ABLE cohort

Currently, aromatase inhibitors (AI) are used as first-line adjuvant therapy for women diagnosed with breast cancer with positive hormonal receptors. Although its effectiveness in reducing the risk of recurrence and mortality is well known [1], AIs have also been associated with side effects that can negatively affect the patient’s quality of life, adherence to treatment and associated mortality [2].
In AI treatment, there is a marked reduction in circulating estrogens in postmenopausal women by blocking the conversion by the enzyme aromatase from androgens to estrogens. This action leaves the woman without residual estrogens, such as estradiol and estrone, after menopause. One of the most common side effects is accelerated bone loss, which is associated with an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures [3,4]. Along these lines, there are different meta-analyzes that include randomized controlled clinical trials that have shown an association between prolonged treatment with AI and an increased risk of bone fractures, with an increase between 34% and 59% [5,6].

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Differences in bone mineral metabolism normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism with respect to classical primary hyperparathyroidism

Primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is a very common bone mineral metabolic disease consisting of autonomous overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which leads to an increase in serum calcium [1]. It is the most frequent cause of hypercalcemia.
A lesser known clinical variant of HPT is the so-called “normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism” (NHPT), which has normal blood calcium levels and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) values, not knowing the mechanism by which this differential fact occurs [2-4]. These patients do not have clear causes that justify secondary elevations of PTH such as chronic renal damage [5], vitamin D deficiency (less than 30 ng/ml) [6], renal hypercalciuria or drugs [7]. Although NHPT was first formally recognized in the Third International Workshop on the Management of Asymptomatic Primary Hyperparathyroidism in 2008 [8], all clinical features are not yet known, particularly with regard to its epidemiology, natural history, management and prognosis [9,10]. Therefore, this clinical variety of the disease is less studied [11] and there is less bibliography. All of which has motivated us to carry out this study.

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Effects of bazedoxifene treatment on the bone quality of ovariectomized rats

Selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs) are synthetic, nonsteroidal agents with estrogenic agonist-antagonist activity in different target tissues [1]. Their estrogenic responses are mediated by estrogen receptors (α and β). SERMs may present agonistic or antagonistic behavior depending on the tissue type [2,3]. In general, SERMs exhibit agonist activity in the liver, the digestive tube, the skeleton and the heart, but antagonist activity in the breast. In the uterus some SERMs manifest agonist activity while others show an antagonist behavior [1]. Several co-regulatory proteins modify the behavior of the SERMs on gene expression and contribute to their tissue-selective pharmacology.
Tamoxifen is a SERM used as a mammary antiestrogen for preventing and treating breast cancer with estrogen agonistic activity in the uterus. Raloxifene has been used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and prevents breast cancer but presents some estrogenic activity [4]. Bazedoxifene is a 3rd generation SERM with agonistic effects on the bone and additional positive effects on lipids, the uterus and the breast tissue [5,6].

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Influence of high-concentration hyperbaric oxygen therapy on bone metabolism

Oxygen is required to produce cellular energy and is involved in numerous processes, such as enzymatic activation, molecular signaling and regulation of gene expression [1]. Also in angiogenesis, the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells and bone formation [2]. In fact, changes in the partial pressure of oxygen can influence the function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts [3]. In hypoxia, bone formation and mineralization decreases, while resorption increases [4-6]. In the opposite direction, hyperoxia could have a beneficial effect on the bone. Treatment with high concentration of oxygen in the hyperbaric chamber has proven useful in osteomyelitis and osteonecrosis of the jaw caused by radiotherapy or by the use of bisphosphonates [7-9]. HC accelerates osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal cells and decreases the activation of osteoclasts [10-12].
In this work we wanted to analyze the actions of oxygen at high concentration in HBO on the expression of genes related to bone metabolism in osteoblastic cell lines and human bone [5,6,13,14].

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Long-term efficacy and safety of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in osteoporotic patients treated by percutaneous vertebroplasty

Without a doubt, vertebral fracture (VF) is the most prevalent type of bone rupture in patients with low bone mass [1]. The most recent epidemiological data in the Spanish population indicate about 35% VF prevalence in women over 45 years of age [2]. In men, the prevalence at 50 years is estimated 5 times lower than that of the female population, although this increases beyond 70 years of age [3].
Osteoporotic VFs (OVF) are conservatively treated, usually including rest, analgesia (in combination with muscle relaxants), orthotics and rehabilitation. This treatment is crucial in the first weeks post-fracture, so that proper follow-up usually resolves OVFs effectively. However, in 10-35% of patients, complications may arise from the fracture itself, such as delayed bone union, increased kyphosis, appearance of neurological disorders or the appearance of pseudo-arthrosis (Kümmell’s disease). In these cases, patients frequently do not respond well to conservative treatment, complicating the management of their symptoms. This tends to worsen over time [4].

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Functional impact of sclerostin gene polymorphisms on DNA methylation and gene expression

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene studies have found some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SOST gene, which encodes sclerostin, associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and predisposition to fractures [1-4]. However, the mechanism responsible for this association is unknown. Among the general mechanisms by which genetic variants predispose to complex diseases are epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, that modulate gene transcription directly (locally) or indirectly (remotely) [5]. In this sense, it should be noted that the DNA methylation of the SOST promoter is inversely related to the gene expression levels of the gene [6].
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that consists in the addition of a methyl group at the 5 ’position of the cytosine ring, usually in cytosines that precede guanine, forming the so-called CpG sites. They are distributed throughout the genome and abundant in some specific regions, such as promoters, called CpG islands. Methylation levels of CpG sites and/or islands have specific profiles according to the tissue of origin and modulate gene expression in many tissues, including bone [7-10].

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Factors that influence the results of bone ultra-microindentation tests. An experimental study in rats

Fragility fractures are the relevant hallmark of osteoporosis [1]. The risk of fracture is closely related to bone strength, which, in turn, depends on bone mass, geometry and material quality [2-6]. Bone mass and geometry can be evaluated clinically using bone densitometry and high resolution imaging techniques. However, the mechanical properties of bone tissue are more difficult to explore. These properties determine bone quality, a concept that represents the intrinsic capacity of tissue to resist tension states, regardless of the amount of material (bone density) or its spatial distribution (bone architecture). Bone quality depends on the chemical composition and organization of the bone matrix [7].
In an indentation or hardness test, a sample is subjected to quasi-static loading by means of a small indenter, recording the size of the resulting footprint; Sometimes the curve that relates the applied load and the displacement experienced by the indenter during the test is also determined. Hardness is defined as the maximum force applied divided by the area of the footprint that remains in the material after the test. Hardness is the property of the material that characterizes its resistance to permanent/plastic deformation [8].

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Myths, stories and legends about calcium and vitamin D

In recent years there has been an impressive increase in the number of scientific articles related to the metabolism of calcium and vitamin D. We have gained a much deeper knowledge of many patho-physiological aspects. However, and in spite of this, a series of fraudulence, myths and legends have been developed in parallel on both calcium and vitamin D, many of them absolutely unjustified, and others derived from a misunderstanding of some scientific articles. Since this can lead to the abandonment of treatments or taking them in the wrong way, we have developed this article in order to clarify, with scientific evidence, some of these aspects.

Review of the physiology of calcium and vitamin D.
Calcium absorption depends on vitamin D and is a saturable mechanism. From a certain amount and reach the optimum level of absorption, all calcium that is ingested is not absorbed and is eliminated by feces.
Between 100 and 200 mg of calcium are removed by the kidney on a daily basis under normal conditions. Also, between 800 to 900 mg of calcium is lost by stool, as a result of the secretion of bile salts and pancreatic juices. These are known as “mandatory calcium losses” and together they constitute about 1,000 mg (Figure 1). Calcium cannot be synthesized by any metabolic route and, therefore, must be taken by diet [1].

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Recommendations of scientific societies on calcium and vitamin D supplementation in osteoporosis

Calcium and vitamin D requirements for health in general and bone in particular are well established. While the medical community recommends maintaining serum levels of 25 hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) above at least 20 ng/ml, the calcemia should remain between 8.5 and 10.5 mg/dl. However, these amounts, which should be obtained naturally from diet (calcium) and sun exposure (vitamin D), are not attained by a high percentage of the population.
Calcium levels, so essential for the operation of multiple systems, are maintained thanks to the store that constitutes the bone. From this, the body obtains calcium to maintain its homeostasis if necessary, to the detriment, obviously, of the bone itself, which undergoes an increased resorption that, in turn, produces osteoporosis.
Vitamin D, for its part, lacking a storage system, sees its serum levels fall as sun exposure decreases. We know that the foods richest in calcium are dairy. The intake of these foods is very low in the general population, for different reasons. Furthermore, the risk of skin cancer causes sun exposure to be avoided “drastically”, which prevents vitamin D production. Calcium and vitamin D supplements help people reach the appropriate levels in these situations and shore up deficiencies.
In this paper, we will discuss the recommendations made in various clinical guidelines. These are selective, given the limited space, but we believe they are representative and shed light on the usefulness of giving calcium and vitamin D supplements for the treatment of osteoporosis or to ensure bone health . The approach that different societies and institutions have made varies from the one carried out in the framework of the general treatment of osteoporosis to the specific one of such supplements, either only of vitamin D, of calcium alone, or of both.

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The role of calcium and vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis

The role of calcium and vitamin D in bone metabolism has been known for many years. Calcium is one of the main components of bone and, together with the collagen matrix, it is responsible for facilitating the strength and resistance of the skeleton [1].
The maximum bone mass is acquired by 30 years of age and depends on genetic and environmental factors, including calcium intake. Once the bone mass peak is achieved, it is necessary to maintain a minimum calcium intake to avoid bone loss.
Vitamin D is responsible for maintaining calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, favoring its reabsorption at the renal and intestinal levels. Its deficit is associated with an alteration of bone mineralization, causing rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults.
Osteoporosis is a prevalent chronic process. It poses a public health problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality [2]. With the aging of the population its prevalence is expected to increase [3]. Physical activity and proper nutrition are two measures associated with a reducted risk of osteoporosis [4]. Adequate calcium intake, together with sufficient levels of vitamin D, have proven to be a good option to maintain a healthy bone state [5].

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Role of calcium and vitamin D in treating hip fracture patients

The proximal femur fracture, or hip fracture, is the most serious complication of osteoporosis, due to its high mortality and morbidity, as well as the significant social, economic and welfare cost it entails. In fact, the hip fracture is capable, on its own, of decreasing life expectancy in almost two years and one in five patients who suffer from it will require permanent health care [1]. Risk factors that favor this type of fracture include a greater tendency to fall and a decrease in bone resistance.
Since the discovery of vitamin D in 1922, it has been associated not only with bone health but also with muscle health [2]. Therefore, and although there is no evidence that determines its effectiveness, calcium and vitamin D administration is recommended for every patient with osteoporosis, to avoid their deficiency, which may be harmful. Thus, in most clinical practice guidelines, treatment with antiresorptive or anabolic drugs must be accompanied by an adequate intake of vitamin D, in addition to an appropriate amount of calcium, which usually ranges between 1,000 and 1,200 mg daily [3-5].

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Clinical Notes
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Editorial
English
Index of Authors
Index of Communications
Letter to the Director
Oral Communications
Original Articles
Osteology images
Poster Communications
Presentation
Reviews
SIBOMM News
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