Revista de Osteoporosis y Metabolismo Mineral

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Author: Romm

About air pollution and hip fracture

Raised levels of air pollution have recently been been linked to the induction of inflammatory phenomena at both systemic and tissue levels. Chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, reduce bone mineral density (BMD), which leads to an increase in the release of immune cells from the bone marrow. Particulate matter is associated with oxidative damage and inflammation, which can accelerate bone loss and increase the risk of fractures in older adults. However, the association between air pollution and osteoporosis is not yet well defined in the literature.
It seems that there are other indirect routes, such as vitamin D and PTH, which may also be altered by contamination and are involved in bone remodeling [1-8]. In the first place, air pollution (microparticles and ozone) presents a physical barrier to ultraviolet B solar radiation, thus contributing to a lower cutaneous production of vitamin D [2,4,5]. Similarly, a study conducted in the United States [9] indicated the relationship between low levels of PTH in blood and elevated levels of microparticles and carbon in the air, causing indirect harmful effects on bone mass.

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Air quality and incidence of osteoporotic hip fracture in Chile

(  PDF )   Rev Osteoporos Metab Miner. 2019; 11 (4): 87-91 DOI: 10.4321/S1889-836X2019000400002 Ormeño Illanes JC1, Quevedo Langenegger EI2 1 Faculty of Medicine. University of Concepción. Concepción (Chile) 2 Endocrinology Section. Department of Internal Medicine. School of Medicine. University of Concepción. Concepción (Chile)   Summary Objetive: Recent studies show an association between environmental pollution and the risk of suffering an osteoporotic fracture. This study aimed to determine if there is an association between environmental contamination with fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and osteoporotic hip fracture. Material and method: Retrospective incidence study. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to assess the correlation between the incidence rate of hospital discharges due to osteoporotic hip fracture in Chile and the annual average concentration of PM2.5 in the Chilean Health Services in 2017. Results: In 2017 there were 8,322 hip fractures in adults 65 years of age or older, with a rate per 100,000 inhabitants of 216 and 567 for men and women, respectively. No association was found between environmental contamination and hip fractures in women. Very weak direct association was found between the incidence rate of osteoporotic hip fracture in men and the annual concentration of PM2.5 (r=0.074) by Health Services, being statistically not significant (p>0.05). Conclusions: No statistically significant association was found between environmental pollution and the incidence rate of hospital discharges due to osteoporotic hip fractures in Chile. Key words: environmental pollution, particulate...

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Long-term efficacy and safety of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in osteoporotic patients treated by percutaneous vertebroplasty

Without a doubt, vertebral fracture (VF) is the most prevalent type of bone rupture in patients with low bone mass [1]. The most recent epidemiological data in the Spanish population indicate about 35% VF prevalence in women over 45 years of age [2]. In men, the prevalence at 50 years is estimated 5 times lower than that of the female population, although this increases beyond 70 years of age [3].
Osteoporotic VFs (OVF) are conservatively treated, usually including rest, analgesia (in combination with muscle relaxants), orthotics and rehabilitation. This treatment is crucial in the first weeks post-fracture, so that proper follow-up usually resolves OVFs effectively. However, in 10-35% of patients, complications may arise from the fracture itself, such as delayed bone union, increased kyphosis, appearance of neurological disorders or the appearance of pseudo-arthrosis (Kümmell’s disease). In these cases, patients frequently do not respond well to conservative treatment, complicating the management of their symptoms. This tends to worsen over time [4].

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Functional impact of sclerostin gene polymorphisms on DNA methylation and gene expression

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene studies have found some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SOST gene, which encodes sclerostin, associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and predisposition to fractures [1-4]. However, the mechanism responsible for this association is unknown. Among the general mechanisms by which genetic variants predispose to complex diseases are epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, that modulate gene transcription directly (locally) or indirectly (remotely) [5]. In this sense, it should be noted that the DNA methylation of the SOST promoter is inversely related to the gene expression levels of the gene [6].
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that consists in the addition of a methyl group at the 5 ’position of the cytosine ring, usually in cytosines that precede guanine, forming the so-called CpG sites. They are distributed throughout the genome and abundant in some specific regions, such as promoters, called CpG islands. Methylation levels of CpG sites and/or islands have specific profiles according to the tissue of origin and modulate gene expression in many tissues, including bone [7-10].

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Factors that influence the results of bone ultra-microindentation tests. An experimental study in rats

Fragility fractures are the relevant hallmark of osteoporosis [1]. The risk of fracture is closely related to bone strength, which, in turn, depends on bone mass, geometry and material quality [2-6]. Bone mass and geometry can be evaluated clinically using bone densitometry and high resolution imaging techniques. However, the mechanical properties of bone tissue are more difficult to explore. These properties determine bone quality, a concept that represents the intrinsic capacity of tissue to resist tension states, regardless of the amount of material (bone density) or its spatial distribution (bone architecture). Bone quality depends on the chemical composition and organization of the bone matrix [7].
In an indentation or hardness test, a sample is subjected to quasi-static loading by means of a small indenter, recording the size of the resulting footprint; Sometimes the curve that relates the applied load and the displacement experienced by the indenter during the test is also determined. Hardness is defined as the maximum force applied divided by the area of the footprint that remains in the material after the test. Hardness is the property of the material that characterizes its resistance to permanent/plastic deformation [8].

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11
120181004-en
120191101-en
120191102-en
120191104-en
920191101-en
Clinical Notes
Committees
Editorial
English
Index of Authors
Index of Communications
Letter to the Director
Oral Communications
Original Articles
Osteology images
Poster Communications
Presentation
Reviews
SIBOMM News
Special Article
Special Documents

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